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Japan Air Lines, as it was first known at its start in 1951,  was a state-owned airline.  It remained this way until in 1987 when it was privatized.  As happened in the US, this period was the start of deregulation.  JAL, as the airline is typically known, had to compete with domestic airlines like All Nippon (ANA) which had a developed network.  JAL has been through some changes since, merging with Japan Air System in 2001.   By 2009 the JAL cost structure could not withstand the competition and the airline went bankrupt.  This led to highly disruptive action, laying off a third of its workforce, cutting the fleet and writing off debt.  The bankruptcy was the largest in Japan’s history when it took place. 

JAL emerged from bankruptcy in 2011 and was relisted a year later.  How did the airline’s fleet change going through these tumultuous time?

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